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Engineering feasibility studies were performed between This plan envisioned using the Golden Gate Bridge for trains, but the Golden Gate Bridge District disapproved the concept, and Marin County was left out of subsequent plans. This decision obviated the original plans to serve San Francisco International Airport, subsequently resurrected in the s.

Bay Area during the s, the lion's share of which came from the Federal Highway Trust Fund, without additional local taxation. In November The new mile light rail system would serve these three counties, as shown in Fig. From mid onward, the system fought one financial crisis after another, struggling to remain afloat.

Design Activities Commence Engineering expertise was brought in from across the country to deal with the many pioneering aspects of the first "from the ground up" rapid transit system to be constructed in America in almost 50 years. Parsons had previously been engaged to perform a comprehensive mass transportation study for the Bay Area, completed in The original PBTB design team employed about engineers, which swelled to nearly engineers and technicians during construction.

Based on testing by Stanford Research Labs in wind tunnels, in September PBTB selected lightweight electrified cars running on pound per 3 feet rails. This was deemed essential to maintaining reliable transit schedules that could compete favorably with freeway commuting Bugge and Irvin, After considering the requisite earthquake loads, the PBTB team concluded that it would be impracticable to design BART structures to "entirely resist" the forces of a maximum event earthquake.

This assessment was based on cost comparisons with the original estimates. The decision was made to design structures that would be able to accept earthquake induced deformations without causing permanent distortion, keeping the risk to both passengers and the system "within acceptable limits", and "still make the project economically feasible" Chandler, The first rail was laid on the test track in Januarywhile construction of the main system commenced in early Being the nation's first high-speed electrified light rail system, the principal purpose of the test program was to evaluate the practicality of computerized Automatic Train Control ATC.

ATC testing was completed between April and February Data from the test track was subsequently used in other light rail systems then under construction in Montreal and Toronto, and those subsequently built in Washington, D. Although cars were originally budgeted inspiraling inflation of the late s reduced the initial order to A-cars and only B-cars when orders were initially placed in February BART was also the first rapid transit system in America to be fitted with a automatic train control, capable of handling 50 trains simultaneously developed by Westinghouse.

BART also pioneered the use of magnetically coded tickets purchased from machines and graduated fares, based on distance traveled Hammond, Of the 75 miles of right-of-way constructed in the initial phase, 20 miles were within tunnels or subways, 24 miles were constructed at grade, and 31 miles was built on suspended structures.

There would be 37 stations, with capacity for 30, seated passengers per hour per track. The bulk of the geotechnical exploration for the proposed rights-of-way was undertaken by Parsons-Brinkerhoff and Bechtel between and But, the short timetable and sheer volume of required information forced PBTB to also employ local engineering firms as subcontractors for geotechnical exploration of many segments.

Most of the geotechnical reports contained standardized boring logs, and were unusual in that they also contained a great deal of test data, as well as sample calculations of bearing capacity and consolidation potential, and recommendations for design values along specific contract segments.

Bay Bridge, where the underlying geology was already well documented Trask and Rolston, Bay Bridge in November Fig. Of foremost interest to the design team were potential settlement problems, stability of the temporary excavations to be made in the bottom of the bay, and the likely presence of rock along the proposed alignment, shown in Fig.

Settlement of the tubes was to be handled by employing compensated excavations, which would seek to remove more soil load overlying compressible strata than originally existed before placement of the tubes. The design team was most concerned about future settlement in vicinity of the east portal, where the Port of Oakland planned on extending their existing mole, across the tube's proposed alignment.

The construction of this mole would increase the effective pressure bearing on compressible strata beneath the tube.

This was handled by The alignment was unique in that engineers sought to avoid good foundation materials, opting to keep the tube on as loose material as possible, so that its flexibility could distribute relatively large oscillations over its long length, and thereby avoid zones where bending stresses might be concentrated.

Seeking to avoid the Yerba Buena rise in the Franciscan basement underlying central S. Bay, the design profile changed alignment both horizontally and vertically, dipping as much as feet beneath the Bay, as shown in Fig. Design of the Trans Bay Tubes When the first phase of the Chicago Subway was being built in betweensoil loads were measured on test sections of two types of tunnels.

One simulated a flexible circular lining, and the soil pressure on this structure was estimated by measuring interior deflections of the steel lining. Soil mechanics pioneer Professor Karl Terzaghi reasoned that soft clay needed to deflect modestly in order to develop fairly uniform stresses around the tunnel, after which it shouldn't deflect any more. Test results from the flexible Chicago test lining made by Ralph Peck suggested that, even with consolidation, the ultimate deflection never amounted to very much in soft clays.

But, the Second World War interrupted progress on the Chicago Subway before they had a chance to build tunnels with thinner sections. In the intervening 23 years between Chicago and BART, this information lay untapped, and subway designers continued to specify heavily reinforced tunnels. Believing that just enough steel was needed to handle the ring stresses because the soil loads arch around the flexible lining, University of Illinois Professor Ralph Peck found himself in the influential position of being one of the external consultants hired by Parsons-Brinkerhoff to review the overall plans and provide advice to the design team, between Kuesel succeeded in convincing others on the design team thin wall circular steel linings should work well in the soft clay soils that dominated the transbay tube alignment, due to its flexibility to withstand differential settlement and high tensile strength psi at the segment connections, which would offer greater performance redundancy in event of an earthquake.

All were designed as flexible linings, with only enough strength to hold themselves up, with acceptable deflections of 3 or 4 inches under their own weight. Unique up until that time for a trench-type tunnel, were the horizontal and vertical curves built into the alignment, which required 15 horizontally curved segments, 4 with vertical curves and 2 with both.

The contractor excavated nearly 6 million cubic yards of Young Bay Mud, Merritt sand and undifferentiated organic silt encountered on the floor of the Bay along the proposed alignment, using a 13 cubic yard clamshell. This trench was between 33 and feet deep, 60 feet wide at the base, with side slopes between 1. Excavated material was dumped into 2, cubic yard bottom dump barges, and disposed of in the tidal draw channel west of Alcatraz Island no longer allowed.

The twin tube sections were between and feet long and averaged 11, tons apiece. After launching into the bay, they were outfitted with inch thick interior concrete linings, designed to combat buoyancy, as well as concrete floors, walls and walkways. An emergency accessway and exhaust air ducts were constructed between the feet diameter tubes, which were spaced 8 feet apart. The tubes were sealed at either end and sunk After fitting out, the tube sections were sealed at either end and floated to a catamaran placing barge, from which they were suspended Fig.

Contrary to popular belief, the tubes were never filled with water, they were sunk by dumping tons of gravel onto ballast pockets built atop the tubes, gradually lower them into position Murphy and Tanner, Engineering News Record, Nov 16, The tubes were set on 2 feet thick gravel blankets placed within 0.

The goal was to place each tube about 2 feet from the existing line of tubes, then bring them within 1 inch of design alignment using ton hydraulic jacks with inch strokes, connected to four railroad car couplers installed at each end. Once positioned, water was trapped between the two end bulkheads, between neoprene gaskets. This trapped water was bled from the joint and pumped out, creating some buoyancy, but the pumping also brought the sections closer together, under vacuum.

The temporary bulkheads on both sides of the new joint were then removed and reused on other sections. Liner plates were welded across the new joint from the inside to make a permanent connection capable of transmitting psi in tension. A 2 feet thick concrete lining was then placed within the transition the remaining lining having already been placed at Bethlehem's dock. Once attached, a specially configured screed barge was placed over the newly placed tube and fixed into place by means of four ton anchors attached to positioning winches.

Two 17 feet diameter floatation tanks could then be flooded to submerge the 16 feet deep barge to only 4 feet of freeboard, steadying the barge. The screed barge used 3 inch diameter pipes to place sand and gravel backfill with relative position around the sunken tubes Fig. The tunnels were also provided with cathodic corrosion protection. Beginning in September the first tube was placed against the west side of the Oakland Ventilation structure.

Upon completion of the more extensive San Francisco ventilation structure, work shifted to that side of the Bay, preceding easterly across the Bay. A special earthquake joint was attached to the west end of the westernmost tube, adjoining the ventilation structure.

This joint was fabricated and attached to the feet long section at the Kaiser Steel Yard in Napa.

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About one tube section was placed every two weeks, and placement was completed in early April ENR, April 10, There have been five leaks of the transbay tube during the initial 30 years of operation. On several occasions pin-sized holes have developed in exterior steel lining, which have quickly been detected by observation of the accumulated seepage. Following the October 17, M 7. In a fire in the eastbound tube caused the death of one Oakland fireman because of toxic fumes given off by burning polyurethane seat cushions.

Up until that time the BART sunken tube tunnels were the longest and deepest ever built Warshaw, These projects were described in Kuesel Laser alignment system Early laser alignment techniques were pioneered on he BART job to aid positioning of the dredges as well as the steel train tubes placed in the dredged channel. Lasers provided distinct advantages over conventional range poles and sextants because their effective range was 5 miles, more than enough to accommodate the transbay crossing.

A major concern at the outset was the potential impact of fog on the optical reference system. The inch wide laser beams were projected as spot beams, as well as horizontal and vertical lines, depending on the need. Divergence of the beam at one mile was 6 inches. By bisecting the beams, centering within 0.

For setting stations across the bay, the engineers set up a 2-million candlepower blinker at a known point on shore.

The contractors then used a conventional sextant to measure the angle between the laser beam set on tangent, and the blinker. Because of all the curves in the alignment, as series of chords had to be set up. Vertical tolerance for the tube bedding was set at 0. Before sinking, survey towers were attached to each tube section, parallel to finish grade The contractor built a survey barge equipped with an array of electronic and optical gear.

With this, they were able to prepare cross sections every 25 feet to evaluate tolerances and make the necessary adjustments.

These techniques were described in Civil Engineering and Bengston A steel frame ventilation structure by 68 feet in plan and feet high had been established about feet offshore from the S. Ferry Building, where the tracks reach elevation feet Figs.

In the segment between the Montgomery Station and the vent structure the Young Bay Mud reaches a thickness of nearly feet, and these shield tunnels had to rise through a maze of old timber piles supporting the Ferry Building and wharf complex, a massive sea wall, an active railroad, abandoned underpass, countless utilities and the steel H-pile supported Embarcadero Freeway Interstatewhose superstructure was later demolished following damage sustained during the October Loma Prieta Earthquake.

The contractor was confined to x feet waterfront staging area, with a feet wide stretch up Market Street. Special "risk sharing" contractual clauses drawn up by the PBTB team provided for extra payment for removal of substantial buried obstructions in this segment, such as buried gold rush era sailing ships and old timber piles Kuesel, It wasn't long before the contractor's shield began traversing a forest of timber piles.

Though no longer supporting buildings, these piles were tied together by overlying concrete pile caps, without carrying any significant structural load. These conditions proved nerve racking for the contractor, and he was forced to advance the excavation with shields while probing ahead, finding the old piles, then using chain saws to sever the piles 3 to 4 inches above and several inches beneath the shield.

Although the length of most piles left above the tunnel linings was only 4 to 6 feet, the resident engineer was concerned about negative skin friction downdrag pulling these piles down onto the thin steel membrane of the tube's flexible linings. Though engineers doubted downdrag could be developed in such short piles, it soon did, and the lining developed a series of obvious dimples.

The contractor had to weld plates and fashion makeshift stiffeners to keep the dimples from preceding further. During driving of the first shield, the contractor encountered soft ground sooner than expected, and Tunnel No.

On the second bore, the contractor installed new mucking equipment that doubled production and changed their procedures to seal off the tunnel at the vent structure in half the time. As a consequence, the second bore was completed in late June3 months ahead of their month schedule ENR, July 3, Muni turnaround was built across this same foot-of-Market Street area, excavations came within 4 feet of the BART tubes, but only imperceptible movements were recorded in the BART tunnels Hashash, et al, This stellar performance testified to the theories upon which the flexible lining support system were based.

Although Chicago never benefited from their pioneering subway test sections, BART sure did, and it became the model for all subsequent rapid transit systems built in the ensuing decades. At that time the Embarcadero Station was not envisioned, as there was between 80 and 95 feet of Young Bay Mud below water table, and the proposed rail level would still be 80 feet below street level, an unprecedented excavation in the waterfront area. In addition, all the Market Street stations had to be sandwiched between large pile supported structures while utilities and transportation arteries remain working.

BART plans envisioned cut-and-cover excavations up to 80 feet deep and 61 feet wide at the three major stations along lower Market Street, Montgomery, Powell and Civic Center. MUNI already connected the downtown financial district with the City's western additions, through the Twin Peaks streetcar tunnel, completed in The PBTB design team was impressed by the recent success of the SPTC support system at this site because it was close to the Bay, working in young bay muds below sea level, with high groundwater.

The massive SPTC support system proved very successful, and the measured movements were small. Embarcadero Station would be feet long, 80 feet deep, and closest to the Bay of the 34 stations on the BART system. However, when design began it soon became apparent that the factor of safety for heave in the floor of the Embarcadero Station excavation was too low. For weeks PBTB engineers debated how to design an excavation that would stand up to the terrific hydrostatic and lithostatic pressures generated by up to 80 feet of young bay mud.

Many options, such as progressive excavation, ground freezing, eggcrate slurry walls, thick mats, were discussed and evaluated. In the end they opted for employing extremely thick "heave piles", a heroic measure intended to support the adjacent ground with brut strength, because of all the existing structures lining Market Street.

At the core of the Embarcadero SPTC wall were W soldier piles with specially-fitted circular "pile tips", placed in drilled inch diameter shafts, extending feet below grade Fig.

But, in those vertical zones supporting soft bay muds, the flanges of the solider piles were beefed up to W36x sections, using thickened flanges Armento, These comprised the heaviest soldier piles ever used for shoring in San Francisco up until that time. The SPTC method used a bentonite mud slurry to support the sides of the caisson holes, in the same manner as an uncased water or oil well.

Once excavated to the desired depth, the inch steel soldier piles were lowered into the slurry-filled holes and concrete was tremied into the annulus, displacing the bentonite slurry upward. Once the caissons were installed, the intervening space between caissons was excavated and also supported with slurry, until displaced by tremie concrete, forming walls 3 to 4 feet thick.

These walls comprised the SPTC temporary bulkhead. The upper 28 feet of the slurry wall was subsequently demolished as the permanent station was built, requiring blasting which occasionally damaged the piles ENR, Jan. New permanent concrete walls were built inside the SPTC structure below feet, as excavation for the stations preceded downward.

At Embarcadero, some of the H-beam shaped reinforcement sections were 10 to 12 feet deep between flanges, with fillets 4 inches thick. These extended into the Old Bay Mud, 55 feet below station platform level Fig.

The station's interior was constructed between May and November The Embarcadero, Montgomery and Powell Stations along Market Street were constructed in this manner, using cut-and-cover, with contractor staging on temporary platforms built atop the excavations.

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Only busses and trolleys were allowed on Market Street during construction, running along either curbside. Construction staging was alternated from north to south sides of Market during that interim, and the street was re-opened to traffic in February Work on the MUNI stations began in early and was completed in Morrison-Knudsen was given the contract for the lower feet of tunnels and the shell excavation of the Embarcadero Station in February At Powell Stationfive streets converge and the Powell Street cable car line terminates.

DVM chose to employ a hydraulically operated mole TBM with a 3-feet diameter central cutting wheel and an wedge shaped blade openings, which could extend between 3 inches and 3 feet in width, depending on the softness of the ground encountered.

PBTB recommended that the Like the lower Market tunnels, working room was extremely limited, and the contractor was confined to a 50 x 75 feet shaft to service all four bores.

DVM developed a specialized 60 cubic yard muck car 41 feet long, that could be passed through an oversized air lock, designed by Jacobs Associates of San Francisco. The 60 yard muck car could accommodate material from two 2. The muck car dumped its load into a yard capacity bottom dump hopper, situated at the base of the access shaft. DVM then placed a rail-mounted ton gantry crane over the 50 x 75 shaft opening, which could lift the bottom dump hopper and move feet away from the shaft, for bottom dumping of the muck into dump trucks.

DVM's progress on these tunnels using their TBM mole was impressive, boring through 1, feet in 17 working days, with feet in their best single day ENR, January 14, DVM drove three of the four tunnels under air pressure, then convinced BART to share the savings by driving he last bore without additional air.

Average rate of advance under air was about 40 feet per day, and 55 to 60 without. When the mole ran into soft ground, they closed the wedge-shaped blade openings down to about 3 inches, and this prevented overbreakage. Two ton mechanical mole was built by Mine Equipment Manufacturing Corporation Memco were 18 feet in diameter, capable of developing 1.

They used 1 inch thick steel plates, with a closed face using four hydraulically operated doors. The doors employed cutting edges that scrapped soil off the face as the head rotated up to 4 revolutions per minute.

The mole was advanced in increments of 2. The 16th Street tunnels were 40 to 80 feet deep, cutting through alluvial deposits dominated by fine sand, but including clayey and silty sand as well, as shown in Fig. Several pockets of silty clay were avoided. The biggest concern prior to excavation was with dewatering. The contract allowed two methods of controlling groundwater -- by means of deep wells or by using compressed air inside the tunnel.

The contractor elected to use both methods, with varying degrees of success. Those sections employing compressed air at 12 psi tended to record less settlement. The twin tunnels were lined with 30 inch wide steel ring liners, using 6 circular segments and one smaller "key" segment. These liners were described in Wolcott and Birkmyer To fill the annular space between mined ground and the tunnel lining plates, the contractor was given the choice between using a one-shot cement grout or air-blown pea gravel, followed by grouting at a later date.

Neither system proved entirely successful, as grout constantly leaked out and pea gravel mixed with the soft surrounding ground sufficiently to complicate finish grouting later, as there was to pore space to grout.

Of great concern to area residents was ground settlement, because the line curved beneath several blocks of existing structures. One of the problems encountered with the mechanical mole TBM was the inability of the operator to "see" the ground he was excavating.

When the cutting head encountered moist sandy soil, the effective cohesion diminished with increasing disturbance and the overlying ground began to run into the face of the mole, causing excessive settlements, and in some cases, sinkholes, above the tunnel. Checks were then developed to prevent over-excavation by comparing rates-of-advance to volume of mucked material.

These sorts of comparisons are now commonplace. Tunneling rates of up to 70 feet advance in 24 hours were recorded on these segments, but the average rate of advance was feet per 5-day work week. The general aspects of construction of the 16th Street tunnels were described in Thon and Amos The oscillating TBM employed four independently activated cutter blades, each covering a quadrant of the tunnel face, sweeping back and forth, like windshield wiper blades.

Each blade was powered by two rams with a inch stroke. The machine was advanced by means of 20 shove jacks, with a capacity of 3, tons, moving forward in 2. These machines were designed for excavating more blocky ground, and fared very well Peterson and Frobenius, This came about as a result of the project introducing "value engineering", a concept which allows the contractor to share in the profits of alternative designs or construction procedures which reduce the estimated construction costs of each subcontract.

The most novel proposal for value engineering was submitted for the use of a Java Mark I mole TBM, equipped with rock-bit cutter heads, in lieu of conventional drilling and blasting for the 3, feet long Fairmont Hills Tunnels, between Randall Street and Glen Park Station.

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This alignment cuts through Franciscan strata of varying hardness, including sandstone, chert, greenstone, sheared shale, serpentine and silica carbonate rock, with up to feet of cover Chandler, This unit varied in consistency from light-green tuff to dark-green to black diabase basalt. Because of the variability of rock types and the massive nature of the greenstone, PBTB engineers had assumed that TBMs would hamper progress of the overall project, and had specified conventional drill-and-blast methods for this contract.

After considering the number of existing structures lying atop the proposed alignment, the absence of any major faults, and the moderate overburden, the contractor offered a reduction of several hundred thousand dollars for approval of his using a TBM.

His analyses were based in large part on worries of the potential costs of settling residential damage claims ascribable to blast vibrations. By reducing this potential, a sizable contingency was also reduced in terms of cost and time to completion. The tunnels were dug from a shaft excavated near the intersection of Randall Street and San Jose Avenue, where thin alluvial deposits overlie the Franciscan bedrock. The first feet of both tunnels was excavated by conventional techniques, in order to acquire the requisite space to set up the Java TBM.

The rough bores were circular, 20 feet in diameter. The only problems encountered occurred while cutting through serpentine and silica carbonate rocks, although the hardness of some of the greenstone stymied the TBMs advance. Completely sheared and crushed serpentine encountered near Sta. One of the surprises for PBQD geologists were mud filled cavities found in the silica carbonate rocks Chandler, Occasionally, these cavity filling would drop into the tunnel behind the mole, necessitating crib support.

Water inflows throughout the tunnels were low and tended to decrease with time, but a seasonal fluctuation was noted Chandler, The more or less continuous inflow emanating from the sheared serpentine aided in the instabilities that hampered tunneling progress.

Circular steel support sets were placed behind the mole, spaced 2 to 4 feet apart throughout the tunnels. I tried to open it on my now empty computer, and as I suspected, there was an episode of The Simpsons on it.

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The episode started off like any other episode, but had very poor quality animation. If you've seen the original animation for Some Enchanted Evening, it was similar, but less stable.

The first act was fairly normal, but the way the characters acted was a little off. Homer seemed angrier, Marge seemed depressed, Lisa seemed anxious, Bart seemed to have genuine anger and hatred for his parents. The episode was about the Simpsons going on a plane trip, near the end of the first act, the plane was taking off.

Bart was fooling around, as you'd expect. However, as the plane was about 50 feet off the ground, Bart broke a window on the plane and was sucked out. At the beginning of the series, Matt had an idea that the animated style of the Simpsons' world represented life, and that death turned things more realistic.

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This was used in this episode. The picture of Bart's corpse was barely recognizable, they took full advantage of it not having to move, and made an almost photo-realistic drawing of his dead body.

Act one ended with the shot of Bart's corpse. When act two started, Homer, Marge, and Lisa were sitting at their table, crying. The crying went on and on, it got more pained, and sounded more realistic, better acting than you would think possible. The animation started to decay even more as they cried, and you could hear murmuring in the background. The characters could barely be made out, they were stretching and blurring, they looked like deformed shadows with random bright colors thrown on them.

There were faces looking in the window, flashing in and out so you were never sure what they looked like. This crying went on for all of act two. Act three opened with a title card saying one year had passed. Homer, Marge, and Lisa were skeletally thin, and still sitting at the table.

There was no sign of Maggie or the pets. They decided to visit Bart's grave. Springfield was completely deserted, and as they walked to the cemetery the houses became more and more decrepit. They all looked abandoned. When they got to the grave, Bart's body was just lying in front of his tombstone, looking just like it did at the end of act one.

The family started crying again. Eventually they stopped, and just stared at Bart's body. The camera zoomed in on Homer's face. According to summaries, Homer tells a joke at this part, but it isn't audible in the version I saw, you can't tell what Homer is saying. The view zoomed out as the episode came to a close. The tombstones in the background had the names of every Simpsons guest star on them.