The Shroud of Turin, a linen cloth that tradition associates with the crucifixion and burial of . However, in a paper Gove conceded that the "arguments often raised, belonged to Louis IX of France and preserved in Saint-Maximin, Var, France, in Nature, Anthos Bray of the Instituto di Metrologia 'G. Colonetti', Turin, . Phillips and Hedges suggested, in the scientific magazine Nature (), that neutron radiation could be liable of a wrong radiocarbon dating, while proton Elementary Seismology (W. H. Freeman, San Francisco and London ). Clausen HB, Buchmann B, Ambach B () Si32 dating of an alpine glacier. Nature Covey C () The earth's orbit and the ice ages. Freeman, San Francisco Damon PE, Donahue DJ, Gore BH, Hatheway AL, Jull AJT, SGE, Leese MN, Tite MS () Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin.
The three containers containing the shroud to be referred to as sample 1 and two control samples samples 2 and 3 were then handed to representatives of each of the three laboratories together with a sample of the third control sample 4which was in the form of threads. All these operations, except for the wrapping of the samples in foil and their placing in containers, were fully documented by video film and photography.
Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin
The laboratories were not told which container held the shroud sample. Because the distinctive three-to-one herringbone twill weave of the shroud could not be matched in the controls, however, it was possible for a laboratory to identify the shroud sample. If the samples had been unravelled or shredded rather than being given to the laboratories as whole pieces of cloth, then it would have been much more difficult, but not impossible, to distinguish the shroud sample from the controls.
With unravelled or shredded samples, pretreatment cleaning would have been more difficult and wasteful. Because the shroud had been exposed to a wide range of potential sources of contamination and because of the uniqueness of the samples available, it was decided to abandon blind-test procedures in the interests of effective sample pretreatment.
Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin — University of Arizona
But the three laboratories undertook not to compare results until after they had been transmitted to the British Museum. Also, at two laboratories Oxford and Zurichafter combustion to gas, the samples were recoded so that the staff making the measurements did not know the identity of the samples. Controls The three control samples, the approximate ages of which were made known to the laboratories, are listed below.
Two were in the form of whole pieces of cloth samples 2 and 3 and one was in the form of threads sample 4. Plumley for the Egypt Exploration Society in On the basis of the Islamic embroidered pattern and Christian ink inscription, this linen could be dated to the eleventh to twelfth centuries AD. This corresponds to a calendar age, rounded to the nearest 5 years, of cal BC - AD 75 cal at the 68 per cent confidence level 5 where cal denotes calibrated radiocarbon dates.
Measurement procedures Because it was not known to what degree dirt, smoke or other contaminants might affect the linen samples, all three laboratories subdivided the samples, and subjected the pieces to several different mechanical and chemical cleaning procedures.
Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin
All laboratories examined the textile samples microscopically to identify and remove any foreign material. Zurich precleaned the sample in an ultrasonic bath. After these initial cleaning procedures, each laboratory split the samples for further treatment. The Arizona group split each sample into four subsamples. One pair of subsamples from each textile was treated with dilute HCL, dilute NaOH and again in acid, with rinsing in between method a. The second pair of subsamples was treated with a commercial detergent 1.
The Oxford group divided the precleaned sample into three. Two of the three samples were then bleached in NaOCL 2. The Zurich group first split each ultrasonically cleaned sample in half, with the treatment of the second set of samples being deferred until the radiocarbon measurements on the first set had been completed.
The first set of samples was further subdivided into three portions. One-third received no further treatment, one-third was submitted to a weak treatment with 0.
After the first set of measurements revealed no evidence of contamination, the second set was split into two portions, to which the weak and strong chemical treatments were applied.
All of the groups combusted the cleaned textile subsample with copper oxide in sealed tubes, then converted the resulting CO2 to graphite targets. Arizona and Oxford converted CO2 to CO in the presence of zinc, followed by iron-catalysed reduction to graphite, as described in Slota et al. Among the most obvious differences between the final version of the protocol and the previous ones stands the decision to sample from a single location on the cloth.
Testore performed the weighting operations while Riggi made the actual cut. Also present were Cardinal Ballestrero, four priests, archdiocese spokesperson Luigi Gonella, photographers, a camera operator, Michael Tite of the British Museum, and the labs' representatives.
An outer strip showing coloured filaments of uncertain origin was discarded. The other half was cut into three segments, and packaged for the labs in a separate room by Tite and the archbishop. The lab representatives were not present at this packaging process, in accordance with the protocol. The labs were also each given three control samples one more than originally intendedthat were: Official announcement[ edit ] In a well-attended press conference on October 13, Cardinal Ballestrero announced the official results, i.
The official and complete report on the experiment was published in Nature. Colonetti', Turin, "confirmed that the results of the three laboratories were mutually compatible, and that, on the evidence submitted, none of the mean results was questionable. Since the C14 dating at least four articles have been published in scholarly sources contending that the samples used for the dating test may not have been representative of the whole shroud.
Rogers took 32 documented adhesive-tape samples from all areas of the shroud and associated textiles during the STURP process in On 12 DecemberRogers received samples of both warp and weft threads that Luigi Gonella claimed to have taken from the radiocarbon sample before it was distributed for dating. The actual provenance of these threads is uncertain, as Gonella was not authorized to take or retain genuine shroud material,  but Gonella told Rogers that he excised the threads from the center of the radiocarbon sample.
He stated that his analysis showed: The main part of the shroud does not contain these materials. Based on this comparison Rogers concluded that the undocumented threads received from Gonella did not match the main body of the shroud, and that in his opinion: It may not have taken us long to identify the strange material, but it was unique amongst the many and varied jobs we undertake.
She has rejected the theory of the "invisible reweaving", pointing out that it would be technically impossible to perform such a repair without leaving traces, and that she found no such traces in her study of the shroud.
Gove helped to invent radiocarbon dating and was closely involved in setting up the shroud dating project. He also attended the actual dating process at the University of Arizona. Gove has written in the respected scientific journal Radiocarbon that: If so, the restoration would have had to be done with such incredible virtuosity as to render it microscopically indistinguishable from the real thing.
Even modern so-called invisible weaving can readily be detected under a microscope, so this possibility seems unlikely. It seems very convincing that what was measured in the laboratories was genuine cloth from the shroud after it had been subjected to rigorous cleaning procedures. Probably no sample for carbon dating has ever been subjected to such scrupulously careful examination and treatment, nor perhaps ever will again.
Atkinson wrote in a scientific paper that the statistical analysis of the raw dates obtained from the three laboratories for the radiocarbon test suggests the presence of contamination in some of the samples.