The first immigrations to Canada by Czechs and Slovaks date back to the s. .. V nemluvněti byli svědky divu všech divů Bůh se stal člověkem jedním z nás! .. Even electronic correspondence is lagging behind. .. Na jaře tohoto roku jste byli informováni o připravované akci pro předvánoční období sety Pentagramu. that information to WikiLeaks for the purpose of putting it on the Internet. působení, čin, děj, boj, chod, bitva; USER: akce, akční, žaloba, činnost, akci .. baby /kpss5.info = NOUN: dítě, nemluvně, děvče; USER: dítě, pusinka, dětská, chlapec; VERB: datovat, chodit s někým; USER: datum, data, Přidáno, Date, den. Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd. Flag for inappropriate akceptovat co accept sth akceschopny datle date datovat co date sth datum date; - narozeni date of birth dav crowd davat show*, (v nemluvne infant nemluvny.
Periodical postage paid in Philippi, WV. Natasha Laurinc You may send articles to above address. Desktop publishing and art: Vit Malek Assistant Editors: George Sommer Editorial Staff: Send address changes to Publication Office: Perpetual Motion Nothing seems to change, yet things do not stay the same.
Transitioning from one year to the next, one can t help the feeling that everything is being repeated. Christmas marks the end of one year, and New Year s the beginning of another. It seems the days in our modern society of the 21 st Century rush by too quickly. The whole world is in a state of perpetual motion. It is easy for one to be deafened by the overwhelming amount of information circulating through the media and to lose perspective.
One can t keep up with all the available information, and it is no wonder that one feels like a grain of sand fallen on the vast ocean floor. The saying out of sight, out of mind captures the present with surprising accuracy. It is enough to move to another location, and one feels abandoned by one s friends. And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria. And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city. And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; To be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child.
And so it was, that, while they were there, the days were accomplished that she should be delivered. And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them at the inn.
And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night. And, lo, the angle of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them; and they were sore afraid.
And the angel said unto them, Fear not; for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Savior, which is Christ the Lord. And this shall be a sign unto you; Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger.
And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying, Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men. The Druids in ancient England and Gual and the Romans in Europe both used evergreen branches to decorate their homes and public buildings to celebrate the Winter Solstice. Over the years, these traditions were adopted by Christians, who incorporated them as part of their Christmas are mentioned in the early s in Germany and surrounding countries.
The families would set up these trees in a prominent location of their home and decorate them with colored paper, small toys, food, and sometimes candles.
As these peopled moved or immigrated to other countries, they brought this tradition with them. Through the years many different things were used to decorate Christmas trees. As the world moved into the s many trees were decorated with stings of popcorn, homemade cards and pictures, cotton to look like snow, candy in all shapes and sizes, and occasionally, fancy store made glass balls and hand blown glass figurines. Candles were sometimes used, but often caused devastating fires, and many different types of candle holders were devised to try to prevent tree fires.
Electric tree lights were first used just 3 years after Thomas Edison had his first mass public demonstration of electric lights back in The early Christmas tree lights were handmade and quite expensive. Today, Christmas tree ornaments can be found in nearly every size, color, and shape imaginable, and they are used to decorate the millions of Christmas trees used throughout the world. Candy Canes of Christmas Candy cane sweet treats made primarily from boiled sugar seem to have first appeared in Europe in the late s to early s.
The cane shape turned out to be a great way to hang the sugar treats on the Christmas tree that was also strongly associated with the Christmas season, and the bright colors of red and white were a nice contrast with the green of the Christmas trees.
This was during a time when many food items were hung on the Christmas trees, from strings of popcorn to cookies and pastries. The exact story of who and why the candy canes evolved into the red and white striped cane shapes we are so familiar with today is lost to history, but a reasonable explanation is that the cane shape was created to look like the staff of a shepherd which fits in not only the story of shepherds attending Jesus birth, but also of the symbolism of Jesus as a shepherd of his flock.
These treats were then given to small children to encourage them to behave at long church services during the Christmas season. Tradition of Poinsettias Poinsettias are believed to have originated in central and south America and were recorded, described, and revered by the ancient Aztec peoples.
This flowering plant eventually became a symbol of Christmas to the Mexican culture and it became a tradition to use poinsettia plants to decorate during Christmas time.
In the American Ambassador to Mexico, Joel Poinsett attended church service on Christmas Eve and was impressed with the bright red flowers used to decorate the church alter. Poinsett took seeds with him when he went back to America and shared the plants with local churches during Christmas celebrations over the next several years.
Because Joel Poinsett was so closely associated with the plant in the United States, people who bought them started calling them Poinsett s plants or Poinsettias. Today, millions of Poinsettia plants decorate homes throughout the world. The colors of the plant, red to represent the blood shed for human redemption and green representing the promise of new life and rebirth tie in with the religious teachings of Christmas and the preparation of starting a new year.
Mistletoe Mistletoe was often hung over the entrances to homes of the pagans in Scandinavian countries to keep out evil spirits. An old Scandinavian myth tells of the seemingly invulnerable god, Balder, who was stuck down by a dart made from mistletoe. The tears of his mother, Frigga, became the white berries of the mistletoe, and it was decreed that the plant must never again be used as a weapon.
Frigga, who was the goddess of love, henceforth gave a kiss to anyone who passed under the mistletoe. It may be that our present custom of kissing under the mistletoe derives from this old legend. Legend holds that the Druids, who were members of a pagan religious order in ancient Gual, Briton and Ireland, held the mistletoe in such reverence that if enemies met under it in the forest, a truce was declared for the day.
It was their belief that only happiness would enter a home when mistletoe hung over the door. When the Yule season approached, the mistletoe was cut down from the sacred oaks by the Prince of the Druids who used a golden sickle. The mistletoe was distributed to the people who believed it possessed powers of protection against sickness and evil.
Later among Christians it came to symbolize the healing powers of Christ. Treasure the opportunity you have to listen to the beautiful music. Share the rich warmth of family and friendship. Offer gifts to friends, loved ones and people in need. Echo the refrain, Tis the most wonderful time of the year! Yet step back from the glitter and glamour so evident in some places during these days and take one good long look at the image of the child in the manger.
Does it not provide a powerful stimulus for us to revisit the nature of powerlessness? This child is wrapped in the robes of mystery. This tiny child is God made flesh before our very eyes.
He is omnipotence wrapped in strips of cloth, omnipresence placed into a drinking trough for animals, omniscience confined to a bed of straw! This little child finds common cause with those who have no place to lay their weary heads. At his birth, the trappings of nobility are nowhere to be seen; the signs of privilege have disappeared into oblivion.
The child in the manger is an object lesson in the mystery of powerlessness!
The time would come when this powerless child of Bethlehem would be recognized as the Savior of the world. Whether he was lying in a manger or hanging from a cross, he would appear to be a victim of circumstance, a person to be pitied, and a model of helplessness.
Yet true power is absent unless it shines forth through the wrappings of powerlessness. Real self-emptying and self-denial are possible only for those who truly know the power of God. A life of sacrificial service rendered with joy is the only option for those who come to know the powerlessness of the Christ child.
This powerlessness is not to be confused with the helplessness that knows nothing but the misery of desperation. It is instead the submissiveness that consists in voluntary entrance into the community of the homeless poor in order to transform it into a seedbed of rich possibilities. This is the powerlessness that knows the trenches, sits at ease with the dispossessed, and enjoys the company of those pushed to the periphery of society.
What we see in the manger and what we celebrate at Christmastime is the awesome power of powerlessness! When we experience this powerlessness, the Holy Spirit empowers us to truly become the servant of all. Then, through the service we render, we can help transform the world. The little baby in the manger is a powerful sign of God manifesting the divine love that opens the way to life for all the world. He became poor so that we, through his poverty, might become rich cf. Nominations will be accepted from November 4,until February 1, This award is given annually by the Baptist World Alliance for significant and effective activities to secure, protect, restore or preserve human rights those rights which are inherent in our nature as human beings.
For the purpose of the award, the term human rights shall include all those rights stated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Any individual who is a member of a Baptist church or member body affiliated with the Baptist World Alliance is eligible for consideration. Persons shall not make nominations on their own behalf, and each person may nominate only one person for each year s award. Nominations may be made in any language used by a BWA member body. They must be received in the BWA office by the time specified above and in the application form. This is a unique opportunity for the BWA to recognize and celebrate the exceptional work for human rights that is done among Baptists around the world in the name of Jesus Christ, and to relate their stories to the Baptist world family.
It also offers the opportunity to promote and encourage networking among those individuals involved in this work. We ask each BWA member body to make this important announcement widely available through their communication networks in as many native languages as possible.
Scripture, Tradition and Koinonia. The objectives of these international conversations are to increase mutual understanding, appreciation, and Christian charity toward each other; to foster a shared life of discipleship; to develop and extend a common witness to Jesus Christ; and to encourage further action together on ethical issues, including justice, peace and the sanctity of life.
An overall aim is to explore the common ground in biblical teaching, apostolic faith and practical Christian living between Baptists and Catholics, as well as an examination of areas that still divide the two Christian traditions. Benet s Hall Benedictine will focus on the preparation of the report of the conversations. The reasons were not only social and economic conditions, but also political and religious convictions.
The North American continent became a place for new beginnings. The first immigrations to Canada by Czechs and Slovaks date back to the s. The largely unsettled land of Canada offered homes to the newcomers. Settlements were created and often named after the immigrating family s origins. Beginnings in a foreign country are never easy. Naturally, fellow countrymen got in touch with one another and maintained those connections.
They founded cultural organizations where not only the language but also the culture was upheld. Those who had left their country due to religious convictions encouraged one another and formed small congregations. In the first half of the twentieth century, people of the same beliefs gathered together in various locations across Canada. In Eastern Canada, in the province of Ontario, two churches were also formed, in Windsor and Toronto.
Mission work among fellow countrymen in Canada was supported by the Czechoslovak Baptist Convention in the USA, founded in The first mention of such mission work in the greater Toronto area was in the magazine Truth and Glorious Hope, in The news was from Vaclav Zboril, who came to Chicago from Czechoslovakia to study theology. The Czechoslovak Baptist Convention sent him to do mission work among his fellow countrymen. Work among Czechs and Slovaks was first begun in Toronto by Rev. Tuczek invited Pastor J.
Fort from Detroit and Pastor V. Hlad from Chicago to evangelize in Toronto. Other significant visitors included Professor A. Novotny from Prague, and 81 year-old August Meeris. Meeris significantly contributed to the beginnings of Baptist work within both Czech and Slovakia. Shortly after visiting Toronto, he passed away. Brother Frank Dojacek, an active member of the church in Winnipeg, was the first to spur Torontonians into congregation.
During his business trips to Toronto, he supported the work of the believers. The first official church service was held on February 17,in the parish of the Polish Baptist Church on Richmond Street.
Brother Dojacek spoke on a text from the fifteenth chapter of the Gospel of John. He also donated a family Bible to the newly established Czechoslovak Baptist Church. Karel Jelinek, a descendent of the Czechs from Volyn, and George Fabok, a Yugoslavian Slovak, shared the responsibility of leading the services.
The congregation temporarily moved to a church building on Queen Street West, the Church of All Nations, where various ethnic groups gathered for services. A priest named H. Vaclavlik used to preach there and was open to working together. At the beginning about twenty people would gather for services. They even established a choir, directed by Jaroslav Vintr.
With the help of the Ontario Baptist Convention, the congregation was able to move to a church on Beverly Street. Tucek leftBrother V. Zboril rightsummer in Toronto Ukrainian congregations gathered there, along with the Czechoslovak congregation.
Gradually the Czechoslovak Baptist Church considered hiring a pastor. After a number of different pastors were contacted, Josef Zajicek accepted the invitation to pastor the church. He began his work in Toronto in He arrived on the scene of a church in its beginnings. Hlada z Chicaga do Toronta na evangelizaci. Donald Shoff A contractor was delivering a bid to the owner of a construction company. The economy was down, construction was slow and the contractor needed this job to stay afloat financially.
The owner of the firm was very impressed with the bid and the conversation was going well when he asked the contractor to excuse him, as he needed to step out of the office for a few minutes.
The contractor could not help seeing his competitor s bid lying on the desk in plain view, all except the contract total, which was covered by a juice can being used as a paperweight.
He struggled inwardly for a minute, and then told himself, why not? No one will know. So, he reached over to move the can just enough to see the total on the bottom line.
As he lifted the can, his heart sank as thousands of BBs poured out of the bottomless can, all over the desk and floor, and into the hallway.
Unfortunately, there have been many who have fallen for the no-onewill-know lie, and one immoral act scattered their reputation like BBs dumped on the floor. This is not a phenomenon that started with televangelists and politicians. It has been a part of the human scene since the beginning of time.
Someone said that integrity is what we are when no one is watching, that is, when we think no one will know. One of the greatest examples in Scripture of godly integrity is Joseph in the book of Genesis. Genesis 39 relates the story of his facing the greatest test of his life as Potiphar s wife repeatedly attempted to seduce him. Had he failed, most people would not have been surprised.
But had he failed, we would not be telling his story years after the fact. We pick up the story of Joseph s life where we left off in our last study. Now Joseph had been taken down to Egypt.
Potiphar, an Egyptian who was one of Pharaoh s officials, the captain of the guard, bought him from the Ishmaelites who had taken him there. Joseph would have been in his late teens at this point and would have only known the life of a simple shepherd. It is doubtful that he had ever been in a city of any size, to say nothing of a city like the capital city of Egypt.
But here he is, being led up a magnificent avenue lined with palatial estates, through sphinx-guarded gates into a world he had no idea even existed. But worse than whatever emotion a teenage boy dumped into that situation may have felt, there was the crushing realization that he was a slave. Slaves were regarded as little more than an animate tool, a thing and they were usually treated that way. From a purely human perspective, that was the end of Joseph.
But to our amazement we read: The Lord was with Joseph and he prospered, and he lived in the house of his Egyptian master. When his master saw that the Lord was with him and that the Lord gave him success in everything he did, Joseph found favor in his eyes and became his attendant. Potiphar put him in charge of his household, and he entrusted to his care everything he owned. From the time he put him in charge of his household and of all that he owned, the Lord blessed the household of the Egyptian because of Joseph.
The blessing of the Lord was on everything Potiphar had, both in the house and in the field. So he left in Joseph s care everything he had; with Joseph in charge, he did not concern himself with anything except the food he ate.
What does that mean, the Lord was with him? Isn t God present everywhere?
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As the phrase is used here and in over thirty other places in Scripture, it is not a reference to God s omnipresence but rather to His blessing and help. When Scripture states that God was with someone it is always linked to that person being successful in the endeavor under consideration.
Note a few examples: In everything he did he had great success, because the LORD was with him. And the LORD was with him; he was successful in whatever he undertook. Does God show favoritism? While spiritual gifts are given to us by God s sovereign choice, it is not so with His blessings. The Prophet Azariah spoke to the heart of this issue in addressing King Asa: The LORD is with you when you are with him.
If you seek him, he will be found by you, but if you forsake him, he will forsake you. How different Joseph was from Jacob, his father, whom we considered in our last study. By the standards of his day, Jacob was successful. However, the secret of Jacob s material success was not that God was with him, but rather that Jacob was shrewd. He was the ultimate heel grabber and never fully conquered it. That was not the case with Joseph. His progress was because his heart was fully committed to the Lord and as a result God was with him.
We must not understand the phrase the Lord was with him to mean that life would be easy. It was the case then as it is now, that life s greatest tests follow life s greatest blessings. This was a time of great blessing and progress in Joseph s life.
Everything was going well and he was making great strides professionally. Are there any contemporary examples of fanaticism? Use the internet and other sources of information and write an essay in Czech on this topic. Discuss with your classmates. It was a form of government in which absolute monarchs pursued legal, social and educational reforms that were inspired by the Enlightenment.
They typically instituted administrative reforms and religious toleration, and supported economic development. The 'enlightened' ruler considered himself or herself to be the 'highest servant of the state' exercising absolute power to provide for the general welfare of the population. However, none of them proposed reforms that would undermine their absolute sovereignity. Where, when and who? The enlightened absolutism was typical of Europe in the 18 th century.
Typical features highly centralized state strong and developed bureaucracy strong army taxes imposed on inhabitants that were to finance the state reforms inspired by the Enlightenment Other notes In spite of the fact that they were influenced by the Enlightenment, their attitude toward the question of royal power and its absolute sovereignity was similar to that of Louis XIV.
They didn t admit at all that they could give up some of their competences. Their states were highly centralized and controlled by them and their bureaucracy.
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Many of enlightened thinkers but not all of them considered enlightened absolutism to be the best possible form of government. For example Voltaire had far too little faith in ordinary people and their abilities for which reason he refused democracy discredited Athenian folly. He considered political equality among people to be practically impossible. On the other hand, Rousseau argued that inequality among people is unnatural and makes decent government impossible.
Kde, kdy a kdo? What were the typical features of the enlightened absolutism? Swedish botanist and physician whose Systema Naturae laid the foundation of the modern taxonomy by including all known organisms in a single classification system.
He was one of the first scientists to define clearly the differences between species, and he devised the system of binomial nomenclature, which gave standardized Latin names to every organism. French naturalist who was the first modern taxonomist of the animal kingdom and who led the team which produced the volume Natural History. He denied the biblical version of creation one of Darwin s precursors.
Dutch pioneering scientist who made important observations of capillaries, red blood corpuscles, and sperm cells, and who is also known for being the first to observe bacteria.
He used a microscope of his own construction. English chemist and physicist who showed hydrogen to be a distinct gas, water to be a compound and not an elementary substance, and the composition of the atmosphere to be constant. English chemist who discovered oxygen ; named by Lavoisier and investigated its properties ; named by Lavoisier.
French chemist who is widely regarded as the founder of modern chemistry. He discovered the process of oxidation, and argued that life itself is a chemical process. American politician and inventor who made several valuable contributions to scientific knowledge.
His famous kite experiment demonstrated the electric nature of lightning. He invented the lightning conductor. Physiology and medicine the development of physiology and medicine progressed rather slowly but there were some notable discoveries concerning inoculation and vaccination for smallpox Technics James Watt: Paul s Cathedral in London was finished in this style, but built from later, still under Louis XV: Henry Fielding wrote another famous novel: Music the last phase of the Baroque era: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composed more than works operas, symphonies, piano concertos and others including the Little Night Music, Rondo alla Turca, and Don Giovanni.
And now, play pairs to remember as many names as possible. Paul s Cathedral in London, completed in rise of the novel, author of Robinson Crusoe and Moll Flanders Henry Fielding Samuel Richardson rise of the novel, author of Tom Jones rise of the novel, author of Pamela and Clarissa Johann Sebastian Bach composer, the last phase of the Baroque music, his works include the Brandenburg Concertos and the Toccata and fugue in D minor 26 27 Joseph Haydn composer, the Classical period, author of a lot of symphonies, Mozart s close friend Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart one of the most famous composers of all times, the Classical era, author of Little Night Music, the opera Don Giovanni and other famous works Anthony van Leeuwenhoek He was the first to observe and describe bacteria.
He improved the microscope. All the pictures were taken from: It was governed by the Hanoverian Dynasty since which promised to keep political and religious freedom in the country. Great Britain became the most powerful state in Europe with numerous colonies, successful trade and relatively calm political situation. The political scene was governed by two groups not modern political parties defending interests of richer social classes: There were several reasons for England s great success in the process of colonization: England s island position numerous harbors and fisheries extensive trade with Europe calm political situation in the state relatively high level of prosperity which gave capital to invest in colonies English society s mobility: The first colonies in America The first English settlers came to America in They founded a small settlement named Jamestown.
The whole colony was named Virginia. Another colony was founded in the north of area in The new settlers, known as the Pilgrims, arrived in a ship called Mayflower. They named their settlement Plymouth.
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It was situated on the Massachusetts coast and later it became a part of the larger Massachusetts Colony. Although the beginnings of both of those colonies were cruel starving, conflicts with the Indians, diseases including scurvy, and other problems; of more than colonists who came to Virginia in the first few years, all but 60 died during the winter of tomany people believed rumours about paradise and left their homeland to start new life in an unknown country.
Delaware was established by Sweden. The first thirteen colonies were divided into three main areas: Its only important resource was lumber. This was the reason why New England colonies based their economy on building ships and fishing. They exported great quantities of salted fish and their ships to Europe and to the British colonies in the West Indies. Their principal exports were grain and livestock exports. The region was full of family farms, some of them very rich and productive.
There were some manufactures in some of the Middle Colonies as well producing iron, glass, paper and textiles. The western country was a place of contacts between the Indians who traded furs to the colonists.
The forest there also provided lumber. Those plantations required a lot of agricultural workers. This requirement and a permanent lack of agricultural workers made the owners turn to the slave trade. There existed an active slave trade with Africans as slaves and the Dutch, French and English took part in this very profitable business. The inhabitants of the colonies came from many European countries. The wave of English immigration was dominant.
Members of other nations from Germany, France, the Netherlands, Scotland, Ireland, and Sweden didn t set up their own, separate colonies except New Amsterdam and Delaware but they mingled with the English newcomers and adopted their language.
Those people of various origin was set to the special milieu where social origin wasn t as important as individual abilities to adopt to the life under cruel conditions. The number of inhabitants in the colonies increased to 2. Svou osadu pojmenovali Plymouth.
What were the two most influential political groups in Great Britain? What dynasty started to rule in Great Britain in ? Why did Great Britain become a leading industrial country in Europe? What was Great Britain s greatest colonial rival in the 18 th century?
Name three factors you consider to be more important than the others which led to Great Britain s colonial victory in the 18 th century. When did the first settlers come from England to America? What was the name of the first English settlement and colony in America?
The whole colony was named. What was the first English settlement in the north of the eastern coast of America? What geographical areas were the first thirteen colonies divided into?
Which of them weren t originally founded by English?