Freud, Sigmund | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. Wilhelm Reich und die Psychoanalyse im Nationalsozialismus. . Vorlesungen zur Einführung in die Psychoanalyse, as Peglau dates it (Lothane, b). While the complete text of Mein Kamp can be read on the internet, the book is. Results 1 - of Contributor: Sigmund Freud; Date: .. ; "Vorlesungen zur Einführung in die Psychoanalyse" [a]; Online Format.
Freud discusses the differences between his point of view on the libido and that of Carl Gustav Jung. Addressing the notion of the "ego libido," he tackles the question of treating "narcissistic neuroses," discusses nosographic considerations in the case of paraphrenia combining paranoia and precocious dementia under the same termand ends with the issue of transference. Transference is compared to the intermediate layer between the tree and the bark, a layer that serves as the starting point for the formation of new tissue and an increase in trunk diameter.
As a result the patient's symptoms lose their primitive meaning and acquire a new meaning in relation to the transference. The work of healing is then defined as follows by Freud: In these lectures for the lay public, Freud addressed, as he had done previously in the case of dreams but on a much larger scale, the difficulties and paradoxes of university training in psychoanalysis. Consequently, the claim that there is no objective criterion by which to judge the truth of psychoanalysis appears to eliminate it from the domain of science, where Freud maintains it belongs.
The weakness of the epistemological argument leads to the pragmatic argument that we can only learn psychoanalysis through self-experimentation. Here, Freud's talent as a dialectician is apparent, and in the remainder of the work, he gradually tries to convince his reader of his claims. Sophie de Mijolla-Mellor See also: Dream; First World War: Source Citation Freud, Sigmund. Hugo Heller; GW, 11; Introductory lectures on psycho-analysis. The interpretation of dreams. Part 1, SE, 4: The psychopathology of everyday life.
A life for our time. In The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud. Jacob Freud had hoped this stay with cousins more successful in business than himself would stimulate in Freud some enthusiasm in that line, but Freud was nurturing fantasies of pursuing a scientific career in England, for all its 'fog and rain, drunkenness and conservatism' Letters to … Silberstein, As a result of the excursion and his encounter with the consistent empiricism in the English scientific writings of the likes of John Tyndall, Thomas Huxley, Charles Lyell, and Charles Darwin, his own interests became more sharply focused.
Correspondingly he declared himself increasingly wary of metaphysics and philosophy ibid. Freud's studies were interrupted by military service in —80, during which he translated four essays by John Stuart Mill for the German edition of the collected works. Significantly, the change of direction coincided with Freud's falling in love with Martha Bernays b.
In the meantime Freud somewhat belatedly began a three-year residency at the Viennese General Hospital, an internationally renowned teaching centre where the heads of department were almost invariably pre-eminent in their fields.
Although Freud's career was full of promise during this period, the prospect of becoming materially secure remained remote and he was searching for new discoveries so as to make his name. One such project was concerned with the applications of cocaine, then new and relatively unknown.
In Freud published an enthusiastic paper based on his experiments on himself and others. Unfortunately it was left to a contemporary, Koller, whose attention Freud had drawn to cocaine's anaesthetic qualities, to complete an investigation into such use in eye surgery and so to claim the considerable credit for the discovery. In contrast to the Viennese psychiatric approach Freud had so far encountered, which was concerned with physical symptoms and family pathology with little attempt to identify causes, Charcot was developing bold concepts for understanding neurosis through observing patients, in particular hysterics, with a view to characterizing disorders and establishing their aetiology.
The trip to Paris was of fundamental significance to Freud's intellectual and professional development. Having arrived there primarily preoccupied with his anatomical researches, by the time of his return to Vienna his interest had turned, through Charcot's influence, to psychopathology and the applications of hypnosis.
In the wake of his formative experience in Paris, Freud gave addresses to the Vienna Medical Society championing Charcot's views on hysteria and hypnosis. These presentations met with cool receptions, to Freud's great disappointment. There was widespread scepticism concerning hypnosis and it is quite possible that Freud's youthful idealization of his French master may have rankled with his senior colleagues, reinforcing Freud's consistently held view of himself as an outsider embattled with the medical establishment.
Marriage and early career Soon after his return from Paris, Freud set himself up in private practice as a consultant in nervous diseases, of which hysteria was one of the most important. Referrals came in particular from his older friend and benefactor Breuer, with whom he was later to collaborate. After years of relative poverty, Freud had generated enough income to marry Martha Bernays on 13 September at Wandsbeck, just outside Hamburg.
The couple settled down to a domestic regime typical of a Viennese doctor's family and Martha had six children, three boys and three girls, within eight years.
The household also included Martha's unmarried sister, Minna, who was able to provide Freud with intellectual companionship through the initial years of relative isolation. During the first years of married life in addition to his private practice Freud was director of neurology at the Institute for Children's Diseases, where he continued his work on brain neurology in addition to clinical duties with neurological patients, enabling him to support his young family while he pursued his greater interest in clinical psychopathology through his private practice of neurotic patients.
Of the neurological papers he published as a result of the neurological post one in particular foreshadows his later work. The 'talking cure' Freud's treatment of patients by hypnosis continued for a decade after his visit to Paris, although he became increasingly aware of its limitations. A fundamental shift in his thinking evolved following his re-encounter with a case history which his older friend Breuer had related to him as early as Breuer had been treating an intelligent and lively minded young woman, known as Anna O.
Taking his lead from the patient Breuer developed a cathartic method, which the patient herself called a 'talking cure'.
A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud
Freud managed to persuade Breuer to revive the method, by which the doctor—patient relationship had effectively been transformed from one of passivity on the part of the hypnotized patient receiving suggestions from the doctor aimed at ridding the patient of the symptom, to that of a patient actively talking in a self-induced trance to a doctor who received information while the patient simultaneously relieved herself of the symptom, which emerged as the product of some early trauma which had not been resolved.
Implicit in the cathartic method which Freud adopted to treat his own patients were several concepts which were to be at the heart of psychoanalytic thinking: An account of the case of Anna O. Breuer had been consistently reticent about the Anna O.
Freud widened the scope of the treatment by taking an interest in anything a patient might have to say, rather than inviting an account of the symptoms.
- Über Psychoanalyse
- Über Psychoanalyse: Fünf Vorlesungen by Sigmund Freud
- Uber Psychoanalyse Funf Vorlesungen (German, Paperback)
Freud named this process free association and its encouragement was the object of the enduring fundamental rule of psychoanalysis, whereby a patient is asked to say whatever comes to mind. With the advent of free association came the demise of the last vestige of the hypnotic method, as Freud now refrained from applying gentle pressure to the patient's head during treatment.
The setting for psychoanalysis later recommended by Freud, where the patient reclines comfortably while the analyst sits out of sight, was designed to facilitate free association.
The request to patients to associate freely threw into relief resistance, a term which Freud used interchangeably with defence at that time. Listening to patients' accounts Freud became convinced that the traumas which lay behind hysterical symptoms had their origins in infancy and he was struck by their sexual content. His father died in the following year. Although he found pleasure in fatherhood and in the family home created by Martha Freud, there was no real intellectual outlet for Freud as he struggled to develop a theoretical framework for psychoanalysis and subjected himself to the emotional strain of a lengthy self-analysis.
Über Psychoanalyse: Fünf Vorlesungen by Sigmund Freud - Free Ebook
Freud's friendship with Breuer had been faltering since the late s and eventually broke down, largely because Breuer was unwilling to concur with Freud's firm conviction about the sexual aetiology of hysteria. It was Wilhelm Fliess, a talented but ultimately discredited Berlin general practitioner, who fulfilled Freud's need for a friend, confidant, and critic. Fliess was closer in age to Freud and unlike Breuer could not be shocked by Freud's more audacious speculations.
The relationship quickly developed a great intensity and the two kept up an intimate correspondence for fifteen years from to which sheds light on the otherwise obscure evolution of Freud's thinking at that time and on his concurrent self-analysis. It was in a long letter to Fliess written in that Freud set out his portentous 'Project for a scientific psychology' with a view to integrating mental and physical phenomena within a single theoretical schema.
Freud began work on the 'Project' in the late summer of in a rush of creativity following one of his 'congresses' with Fliess. His ambition was to set out a psychology firmly grounded in neurology and biology, which he referred to as his 'Psychology for neurologists'. Freud likened the task to an exhausting but exhilarating mountain climb, during which more peaks to be conquered kept appearing. Exhilaration soon gave way to frustration and dejection however, and by November he wrote to Fliess that he could 'no longer understand the mental state in which I hatched the Psychology' Freud, Project for a scientific psychology, The undeniably abstruse draft survives only among Fliess's papers, and Freud makes no mention of this momentous effort in his autobiographical accounts.
It was published posthumously in English infour years after publication in German, having been rescued from Fliess's papers by Marie Bonaparte following his death inand edited by James Strachey Standard Edition, vol. As Strachey points out in his editor's introduction Freud clearly regarded this ostensibly neurological work as a failure.
Although it cannot be said to constitute the foundation of psychoanalytic theory as such, it contained the seeds of many ideas elaborated in his later psychological writings, for example drive theory, repression, and an economy of mind based on mental conflict. Freud's friendship with Fliess was destined to collapse amid recriminations, with Fliess alleging that Freud had appropriated his ideas on inherent bisexuality without acknowledgement. Ten years later Freud's friendship with Jung was also to end acrimoniously, with Jung's questioning of the sexual origins of neurosis at the centre of the dispute.
Long before the split with Jung, and in the period preceding his violent quarrel with Fliess inFreud reflected on the nature of his relationships to contemporaries, which he linked to his intensely ambivalent attachment to his nephew John, who had moved to England when Freud was three.
My emotional life has always insisted that I should have an intimate friend and a hated enemy. I have always been able to provide myself afresh with both, and it has not infrequently happened that the ideal situation of childhood has been so completely reproduced that friend and enemy have come together in a single individual—though not, of course, both at once or with constant oscillations, as may have been the case in my early childhood.
Freud, Interpretation, Fortunately for Freud this easily discernible pattern of turbulent relationships prone to eventual breakdown was restricted to close male colleagues. His family relationships and other friendships were contrastingly consistent and loyal. It was no coincidence that the professional disagreements which caused these intimate friendships to break down were concerned with Freud's insistence on the centrality of sexuality.
Sexuality represented to Freud the direct and essential instinctual link between psychology and biology, without which he would find himself caught up in the dichotomy of mind and body which he was desperate to avoid.
Establishment of psychoanalysis Later in his career Freud recalled the s as years in an intellectual wilderness. His papers on hysteria had not won the respect of the medical establishment and he was aware of his Jewishness in that largely Catholic milieu. In addition Freud had confessed his own surprise that 'the case histories I write should read like short stories and that, as one might say, they lack the serious stamp of science' Standard Edition, 2.
Until the late s Freud's observations of the infantile and sexual origins of hysteria had led him to believe, through listening to his patients' accounts, that his patients had fallen ill as a result of childhood sexual abuse by adults. In he modified this theory of actual childhood seduction and proposed instead that these accounts were often derived from infantile sexual fantasies and therefore belonged in the realm of the patient's own psychic reality and were not, as he had previously thought, necessarily objective facts.
To Freud children were no longer assumed to be innocents in a world of adult sexuality: This shift in Freud's thinking has proved enduringly controversial. Critics have argued that patients' experiences have been denied through their reassignment by Freud to subjective reality and that he changed tack in this way only because he shied away from alienating bourgeois Vienna by reporting widespread sexual abuse in its families.
In fact, Freud never denied the reality of child sexual abuse, and it was his attribution of sexual feelings to children which most shocked his contemporaries. Freud was not to be deterred from his line of enquiry. Indeed the cynicism of his medical contemporaries and outrage from members of the wider public seem to have acted as a spur to new vistas opening up.
In addition to setting the scene for the detailed exposition of human development, for example in the later Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie 'Three essays on the theory of sexuality',the recasting of the aetiology of hysteria in the light of childhood sexuality paved the way to a more general understanding of the role of impulse and desire in the human mind, rendered unconscious through repression.
With the publication of Die Traumdeutung in Freud decisively challenged the accepted limits of scientific psychology, by bringing mental phenomena generally considered beyond the pale, such as dreams, imagination, and fantasy, into the fold. The leitmotif which runs throughout the book is that dreams represent the disguised fulfilment of repressed infantile wishes and that as such 'the interpretation of dreams is the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious activities of the mind' Freud, Interpretation, Freud stated at the outset that his theory of dreams was generally applicable and not restricted to neurotic patients.
Indeed, his curiosity about the nature of dreams had been aroused during his self-analysis and the bulk of the illustrative material was trawled from his own dreams and autobiographical material, along with dreams of friends and children.
It was in The Interpretation of Dreams that Freud, drawing characteristically on his classical schooling, introduced the Oedipus complex, which asserts the universal desire of a child for the parent of the opposite sex and consequent hatred of the parent of the same sex, which must be resolved through repression in order for normal development to proceed. Although sales were slow and a second edition was not needed untilFreud's explorations of normal psychological functioning did stimulate interest in a wider public.
At the time of writing his dream book Freud was planning other studies of normal psychological processes which would none the less plumb the depths of the psyche, namely Zur Psychopathologie des Alltagslebens 'The psychopathology of everyday life',which explored the unconscious meaning of everyday slips of the tongue and bungled actions, and Der Witz und seine Beziehung zum Unbewussten 'Jokes and their relation to the unconscious', for which he drew on his repertoire of 'profound Jewish stories'.
The early years of the century also saw the publication of the first of five substantial case histories which read rather like novellas, the case of Dora, under the title Fragment of an Analysis of a Case of Hysteria .
The most important insight from the analysis of Dora, which broke down when the young woman left, came to Freud with hindsight. In a postscript, Freud reviews the analysis in the light of transference. The phenomenon of transference, whereby any individual's experience of early relationships is the blueprint for later relationships, had already been discussed in the Studies on Hysteria in terms of an unconscious false connection on the part of the patient between the physician and some earlier figure.
Now, reflecting on Dora's inability to continue with her analysis, Freud became aware of the implications of the understanding of transference as a key factor in the therapeutic process of psychoanalysis: During this period Freud's home life remained settled.
As his financial situation improved he was able to indulge his two great interests: Mediterranean travel and collecting antiquities, another natural consequence of a youth steeped in the classics.
He also found time to follow the exciting archaeological discoveries being made at the time, and often cited archaeological excavation as a metaphor for psychoanalytic work, with its interest in painstakingly uncovering hidden layers and origins.
In Freud made the first trip to England since his inspirational visit aged nineteen. He spent a fortnight visiting Manchester relatives who showed him Blackpool and Southport before he departed for London.
He returned full of praise for the architecture and people, having seen the Egyptian antiquities at the British Museum. It was not until the hasty move to London in that Freud once again found himself in his childhood dreamland. Freud's interests beyond the consulting room and the application of psychoanalytic theory to new areas became increasingly apparent in his writings in the years preceding the First World War.
In Totem und Tabu 'Totem and taboo',Freud applied psychoanalysis to anthropological material for the first time. The psychoanalytic movement As a privat-docent and from a professor extraordinarius Freud was entitled to lecture at Vienna University. These lectures attracted a small group of followers composed of both laymen and doctors.
From onwards they met as the Wednesday Psychological Society, which evolved into the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society in In the meantime, to his great satisfaction, Freud's reputation began to spread beyond Vienna and he began to attract interest from foreigners, among them the well-known psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler and his young assistant Carl Jung.
The spread of psychoanalysis gained momentum and new societies were formed on the model of the Viennese. An international association was established inuniting the various groups and promising a structure which Freud hoped would facilitate the perpetuation of psychoanalysis through training. Disagreements led to defection by some members, most significantly by Alfred Adler and Jung, whom Freud had thought of as his successor.
Although the committee met into the s, its conspiratorial air set an unfortunate tone for the future functioning and reputation of the profession.
Further developments Inevitably the First World War interrupted Freud's well-established working routine.
His three sons, Martin, Ernst father of the writer and broadcaster Clement Freud and the painter Lucian Freudand Oliver were all in active service and the real possibility of losses within the family had to be faced. Patients stopped coming, and the international psychoanalytical movement's activities came to a halt.
Freud was left more time for private study, which proved very productive. Dealing with five fundamental themes of psychoanalysis they are 'On narcissism', 'Instincts and their vicissitudes', 'Repression' all'The unconscious', and 'Mourning and melancholia' both Freud went far beyond summing up his theories as they stood in these highly technical papers.
In addition to containing new ideas they also hint at numerous revisions which would preoccupy him during the last phase of his career. By the end of the First World War, Vienna—no longer at the centre of an empire—had become merely the capital of a small, impoverished country. After resuming his private practice Freud took on several British and American patients who proved a useful source of hard currency as a safeguard against soaring inflation. The most serious British interest in Freud came from the members of the Bloomsbury group, in keeping with their characteristic receptiveness to progressive European ideas.
Frances Partridge, who lodged with the Stracheys in Gordon Square during their early years as practising analysts, recalled how psychoanalysis was very much part of the Bloomsbury scene, and that she would often recognize patients as they arrived at the house for their sessions.
Introductions, through Ernest Jones, were eased by the fact that Freud admired the work of James's older brother, Lytton Strachey.
Freud took James Strachey into analysis on condition that he begin translating his writings into English. Translating Freud, culminating with the publication of the complete works in twenty-four volumes by Virginia and Leonard Woolf's Hogarth Press, was to occupy Strachey for the rest of his life, and remains the standard text for the extensive scholarship on Freud in English, and for psychoanalysts without German.
The Strachey translation has been criticized for its recourse to dry scientific neologisms where Freud made use of plain German. For example, Strachey's term 'cathexis', now well established as a psychoanalytic term, takes the place of Freud's 'Besetzung', a common German word with rich nuances of meaning.
The first international congress following the war was held at The Hague inwhich Freud attended in the company of his youngest daughter, Anna, the only one of his children to take an active interest in psychoanalysis, who was now training as an analyst herself and in analysis with her own father.
Freud's three sons had survived the war, and the two elder girls, Mathilde and Sophie, were by now married.
Disaster struck, though, inwhen Sophie, Freud's 'Sunday Child', died suddenly leaving a husband and two small boys. Three years later one of Sophie's children died of tuberculosis in the family's care in Vienna, aged four. Freud took the loss very hard—perhaps, as he reflected in a letter to his writer friend Romain Rolland, because it came soon after the shock of discovering that he was suffering from cancer of the jaw, from which he died some sixteen years later.
The cancer, brought about by years of heavy cigar smoking, necessitated thirty-three operations and constant nursing attention from his daughter Anna in an attempt to contain it, and the fitting of an awkward oral prosthesis. Freud was not deterred from smoking cigars, however, and indeed remained convinced of their therapeutic qualities: