Main · Videos; Email address names ideas professionals dating killer online dating profile examples · hundimiento del lusitania yahoo dating · seo hyo rim and. RMS Lusitania was a British ocean liner and briefly the world's largest passenger ship. The ship was sunk on 7 May by a German U-boat 11 mi (18 km) off. USS Maine (ACR-1) was an American naval ship that sank in Havana Harbor during the Cuban Despite these advances, Maine was out of date by the time she entered service, due to her .. In addition to the inquiry commissioned by the Spanish government to naval officers Del Peral and De Salas, two Yahoo News.
Meals were eaten at long tables with swivel chairs and there were two sittings for meals. A piano was provided for passenger use. What greatly appealed to immigrants and lower class travelers was that instead of being confined to open berth dormitories, aboard Lusitania was a honeycomb of two, four, six and eight berth cabins allotted to Third Class passengers on the main and lower decks.
Construction and trials[ edit ] Lusitania's launch, 7 June Lusitania's keel was laid at John Brown on Clydebank as yard no. Cunard nicknamed her 'the Scottish ship' in contrast to Mauretania whose contract went to Swan Hunter in England and who started building three months later.
Final details of the two ships were left to designers at the two yards so that the ships differed in details of hull design and finished structure. The ships may most readily be distinguished in photographs through the flat topped ventilators used on Lusitania, whereas those on Mauretania used a more conventional rounded top. Mauretania was designed a little longer, wider, heavier and with an extra power stage fitted to the turbines.
The new slipway took up the space of two existing ones and was built on reinforcing piles driven deeply into the ground to ensure it could take the temporary concentrated weight of the whole ship as it slid into the water. This was because designs for the stern and engine layout were not finalised when construction commenced. Railway tracks were laid alongside the ship and across deck plating to bring materials as required. The hull, completed to the level of the main deck but not fitted with equipment weighed approximately 16, tons.
The steam capstans to raise them were constructed by Napier Brothers Ltd, of Glasgow. The turbines were 25 feet 7. The rotors were constructed on site, while the casings and shafting was constructed in John Brown's Atlas works in Sheffield. The machinery to drive the 56 ton rudder was constructed by Brown Brothers of Edinburgh. A main steering engine drove the rudder through worm gear and clutch operating on a toothed quadrant rack, with a reserve engine operating separately on the rack via a chain drive for emergency use.
Princess Louise was invited to name the ship but could not attend, so the honour fell to Inverclyde's widow Mary. On launch the propellers were fitted, but on later launches propellers would be fitted in dry dock as they could be damaged by colliding with another object on launch. Six tugs were on hand to capture the hull and move it to the fitting out berth. The ship achieved speeds of At high speeds the ship was found to suffer such vibration at the stern as to render the second class accommodation uninhabitable.
VIP invited guests now came on board for a two-day shakedown cruise during which the ship was tested under continuous running at speeds of 15, 18 and 21 knots but not her maximum speed. On 29 July the guests departed and three days of full trials commenced. At high speeds the vibration frequency resonated with the ship's stern making the matter worse. The solution was to add internal stiffening to the stern of the ship but this necessitated gutting the second class areas and then rebuilding them.
This required the addition of a number of pillars and arches to the decorative scheme. The ship was finally delivered to Cunard on 26 August although the problem of vibration was never entirely solved and further remedial work went on through her life.
RMS Lusitania - Wikipedia
This made the White Star vessels about 15, tons heavier than the Cunard vessels. Both Lusitania and Mauretania were launched and had been in service for several years before Olympic, Titanic and Britannic were ready for the North Atlantic run. Although significantly faster than the Olympic class would be, the speed of Cunard's vessels was not sufficient to allow the line to run a weekly two-ship transatlantic service from each side of the Atlantic. A third ship was needed for a weekly service, and in response to White Star's announced plan to build the three Olympic-class ships, Cunard ordered a third ship: Like OlympicCunard's Aquitania had a lower service speed, but was a larger and more luxurious vessel.
Due to their increased size the Olympic-class liners could offer many more amenities than Lusitania and Mauretania. Heavy vibrations as a by-product of the four steam turbines on Lusitania and Mauretania would plague both ships throughout their careers. When Lusitania sailed at top speed the resultant vibrations were so severe that Second and Third Class sections of the ship could become uninhabitable.
Because of their greater tonnage and wider beam, the Olympic-class liners were also more stable at sea and less prone to rolling. Lusitania and Mauretania both featured straight prows in contrast to the angled prows of the Olympic liners. Designed so that the ships could plunge through a wave rather than crest it, the unforeseen consequence was that the Cunard liners would pitch forward alarmingly, even in calm weather, allowing huge waves to splash the bow and forward part of the superstructure.
The White Star vessels were divided by transverse watertight bulkheads. While Lusitania also had transverse bulkheads, it also had longitudinal bulkheads running along the ship on each side, between the boiler and engine rooms and the coal bunkers on the outside of the vessel. The British commission that had investigated the sinking of Titanic in heard testimony on the flooding of coal bunkers lying outside longitudinal bulkheads.
Being of considerable length, when flooded, these could increase the ship's list and "make the lowering of the boats on the other side impracticable"  — and this was precisely what later happened with Lusitania.
The ship's stability was insufficient for the bulkhead arrangement used: This was a common practice for large passenger ships at the time, since the belief was that in busy shipping lanes help would always be nearby and the few boats available would be adequate to ferry all aboard to rescue ships before a sinking. After the Titanic sank, Lusitania and Mauretania were equipped with an additional six clinker-built wooden boats under davitsmaking for a total of 22 boats rigged in davits.
The rest of their lifeboat accommodations were supplemented with 26 collapsible lifeboats, 18 stored directly beneath the regular lifeboats and eight on the after deck. The collapsibles were built with hollow wooden bottoms and canvas sides, and needed assembly in the event they had to be used. This difference would have been a major contributor to the high loss of life involved with Lusitania's sinking, since there was not sufficient time to assemble collapsible boats or life-rafts, had it not been for the fact that the ship's severe listing made it impossible for lifeboats on the port side of the vessel to be lowered, and the rapidity of the sinking did not allow the remaining lifeboats that could be directly lowered as these were rigged under davits to be filled and launched with passengers.
When Britannic, working as a hospital ship during World War Isank in after hitting a mine in the Kea channel the already davited boats were swiftly lowered saving nearly all on board, but the ship took nearly three times as long to sink as Lusitania and thus the crew had more time to evacuate passengers. Career[ edit ] Lusitania arriving in New York on her maiden voyage Lusitania, commanded by Commodore James Watt, moored at the Liverpool landing stage for her maiden voyage at 4: At the time Lusitania was the largest ocean liner in service and would continue to be until the introduction of Mauretania in November that year.
A crowd ofpeople gathered to see her departure at 9: She anchored again at Roche's Pointoff Queenstown, at 9: Fog had delayed the ship on two days, and her engines were not yet run in.
All New York's police had been called out to control the crowd. From the start of the day, horse drawn cabs had been queuing, ready to take away passengers. During the week's stay the ship was made available for guided tours.
She had to wait for the tide to enter harbour where news had preceded her and she was met by a fleet of small craft, whistles blaring.
In DecemberMauretania entered service and took the record for the fastest eastbound crossing. Lusitania made her fastest westbound crossing in after her propellers were changed, averaging The photo was taken with a panoramic camera. The celebration was also a display of the different modes of transportation then in existence, Lusitania representing the newest advancement in steamship technology.
USS Maine (ACR-1) - Wikipedia
A newer mode of travel was the aeroplane. Wilbur Wright had brought a Flyer to Governors Island and made demonstration flights before millions of New Yorkers who had never seen an aircraft. Some of Wright's trips were directly over Lusitania; several photographs of Lusitania from that week still exist. A secret compartment was designed in for the purpose of carrying arms and ammunition. The so-called Cruiser Rules required that the crew and passengers of civilian ships be safeguarded in the event that the ship is to be confiscated or sunk.
These rules also placed some onus on the ship itself, in that the merchant ship had to be flying its own flag, and not pretending to be of a different nationality. Also, it had to stop when confronted and allow itself to be boarded and searched, and it was not allowed to be armed or to take any hostile or evasive actions. During the ship's first east-bound crossing after the war started, she was painted in a grey colour scheme in an attempt to mask her identity and make her more difficult to detect visually.
Germany's declared exclusion zone of February Ships within this area were liable to search and attack. Many of the large liners were laid up in —, in part due to falling demand for passenger travel across the Atlantic, and in part to protect them from damage due to mines or other dangers.
Among the most recognisable of these liners, some were eventually used as troop transports, while others became hospital ships. Lusitania remained in commercial service; although bookings aboard her were by no means strong during that autumn and winter, demand was strong enough to keep her in civilian service.
Economising measures were taken. One of these was the shutting down of her No. With apparent dangers evaporating, the ship's disguised paint scheme was also dropped and she was returned to civilian colours. Her name was picked out in gilt, her funnels were repainted in their traditional Cunard livery, and her superstructure was painted white again. The official warning issued by the Imperial German Embassy about travelling on Lusitania By early a new threat began to materialise: At first they were used by the Germans only to attack naval vessels, something they achieved only occasionally but sometimes with spectacular success.
Then the U-boats began to attack merchant vessels at times, although almost always in accordance with the old Cruiser Rules. Desperate to gain an advantage on the Atlantic, the German government decided to step up their submarine campaign, as a result of the British declaring the North Sea a war zone in November On 4 FebruaryGermany declared the seas around the British Isles a war zone: This was not wholly unrestricted submarine warfare as efforts would be taken to avoid sinking neutral ships.
The first was a lack of adequate topside armor to counter the effects of rapid-fire intermediate-caliber guns and high-explosive shells. This was a flaw she shared with Texas. Introduced innickel steel was the first modern steel alloy armor and, with a figure of merit of 0. Harvey steel and Krupp armorsboth of which appeared inhad merit figures of between 0.
The weight thus saved could be applied either to additional hull structure and machinery or to achieving higher speed. The navy would incorporate Harvey armor in the Indiana-class battleshipsdesigned after Maine, but commissioned at roughly the same time.
Not long afterwards, a reporter wrote for Marine Engineer and Naval Architect magazine, "it cannot be denied that the navy of the United States is making rapid strides towards taking a credible position among the navies of the world, and the launch of the new armoured battleship Maine from the Brooklyn Navy Yard Bethlehem Steel Company had promised the navy tons per month by December and had ordered heavy castings and forging presses from the British firm of Armstrong Whitworth in to fulfil its contract.
This equipment did not arrive untilpushing back Bethlehem's timetable. In NovemberTracy and Andrew Carnegie signed a contract for Homestead to supply tons of nickel steel.
Less than two years later, came the Homestead Strike ofone of the largest, most serious disputes in U. Wilmerding striking the bow near the plimsoll line depth of 13 which lead to many comments much later of course that the ship was "unlucky" from the launching.
She anchored there two days, then proceeded to Newport, Rhode Island, for fitting out and test firing of her torpedoes. After a trip, later that month, to Portland, Maineshe reported to the North Atlantic Squadron for operations, training manoeuvres and fleet exercises.
Of these, there were fatalities: Two officers and sailors and marines either killed by the explosion or drowned Seven others were rescued but soon died of their injuries One officer later died of "cerebral affection" shock Of the 94 survivors, 16 were uninjured.
And Don't Forget the Starving Cubans! Three weeks later, at Most of Maine's crew were sleeping or resting in the enlisted quarters, in the forward part of the ship, when the explosion occurred. In total,  men lost their lives as a result of the explosion or shortly thereafter, and six  more died later from injuries. Captain Sigsbee and most of the officers survived, because their quarters were in the aft portion of the ship.
Altogether there were 89 survivors, 18 of whom were officers. Naval Court of Inquiry, in Key West, declared that a naval mine caused the explosion. For a week following the sinking, the Journal devoted a daily average of eight and a half pages of news, editorials and pictures to the event.
Privately, Pulitzer believed that "nobody outside a lunatic asylum" really believed that Spain sanctioned Maine's destruction. Nevertheless, this did not stop the World from insisting that the only "atonement" Spain could offer the U.
Nor did it stop the paper from accusing Spain of "treachery, willingness, or laxness" for failing to ensure the safety of Havana Harbor. However, the event created an atmosphere that virtually precluded a peaceful solution. Advocates of the war used the rallying cry, "Remember the Maine! To hell with Spain! The Sampson Board in and the Vreeland board in InAdmiral Hyman G. Rickover commissioned a private investigation into the explosion, and the National Geographic Society did an investigation inusing computer simulations.
All investigations agreed that an explosion of the forward magazines caused the destruction of the ship, but different conclusions were reached as to how the magazines could have exploded. Del Peral and De Salas identified the spontaneous combustion of the coal bunker, located adjacent to the munition stores in Maine, as the likely cause of the explosion. However, the possibility of other combustibles causing the explosion such as paint or drier products was not discounted.
Additional observations included that: Had a mine been the cause of the explosion, a column of water would have been observed. The wind and the waters were calm on that date and hence a mine could not have been detonated by contact, but only by using electricity, but no cables had been found.
No dead fish were found in the harbor, as would be expected following an explosion in the water. Munition stores do not usually explode when a ship is sunk by a mine.
The conclusions of the report were not reported at that time by the American press. Rickover on his investigation of the sinking, the Secretary of the Navy had the option of selecting a board of inquiry personally. Instead, he fell back on protocol and assigned the commander-in-chief of the North Atlantic Squadron to do so.
The commander produced a list of junior line officers for the board. The fact that the officer proposed to be court president was junior to the captain of Maine, Wegner writes, "would indicate either ignorance of navy regulations or that, in the beginning, the board did not intend to examine the possibility that the ship was lost by accident and the negligence of her captain. The Sampson Board produced its findings in two parts: Between the proceedings and the findings, there was, what Wegner calls, "a broad gap", where the court "left no record of the reasoning that carried it from the often—inconsistent witnesses to [its] conclusion.
Captain Sampson read Commander Converse a hypothetical situation of a coal bunker fire igniting the reserve six-inch ammunition, with a resulting explosion sinking the ship. He then asked Commander Converse about the feasibility of such a scenario. Commander Converse "simply stated, without elaboration, that he could not realize such an event happening".
They reached this conclusion, based on the fact that the majority of witnesses stated that they had heard two explosions and that that part of the keel was bent inwards. In the opinion of the court, this effect could have been produced only by the explosion of a mine situated under the bottom of the ship at about frame 18, and somewhat on the port side of the ship.
The reasons for this were the recovery of the bodies of the victims, so they could be buried in the United States and also a desire for a more thorough investigation. The fact that the Cuban government wanted the wreck removed from Havana Harbor might also have played a role: Wegner suggests that the fact that this inquiry could be held without the pending risk of war, which had been the case inlent it the potential for greater objectivity than had been possible previously.
Moreover, since several of the members of the board would be certified engineers, they would be better qualified to evaluate their findings than the line officers of the board had been. Vreeland inspected the wreck. They concluded that an external explosion had triggered the explosion of the magazines. However, this explosion was farther aft and lower powered than concluded by the Sampson Board. The Vreeland Board also found that the bending of frame 18 was caused by the explosion of the magazines, not by the external explosion.
Rickover became intrigued with the disaster, and began a private investigation in Using information from the two official inquiries, newspapers, personal papers and information on the construction and ammunition of Maine, it was concluded that the explosion was not caused by a mine.
Instead, there was speculation that spontaneous combustion of coal in the bunker, next to magazine, was the most likely cause. Navy and the Spanish—American War, Wegner revisits the Rickover investigation and offers additional details.
Taylor, claimed the U. Navy "made little use of its technically trained officers during its investigation of the tragedy. Navy's nuclear propulsion program, said they knew no details of Maine's sinking. When Rickover asked whether they could investigate the matter, the historians, now intrigued, agreed. Knowing of Rickover's "insistence on thoroughness," Wegner says, all relevant documents were obtained and studied.
These included the ship's plans and weekly reports of the unwatering of Maine, inby the chief engineer for the project, William Furgueson. These reports included numerous photos, annotated by Furgueson with frame and strake numbers on corresponding parts of the wreckage.DiFilm - Estados Unidos entra en la Primera Guerra Mundial 1917
Two experts on naval demolitions and ship explosions were brought in. Since the photos showed "no plausible evidence of penetration from the outside," they believed the explosion originated inside the ship. Up to the time of Maine's building, he explains, common bulkheads separated coal bunkers from ammunition lockers and American naval ships burned primarily smokeless anthracite coal. With an increase in the number of steel ships, the U.
Navy switched to bituminous coalwhich burned at a hotter temperature than anthracite coal, and allowed ships to steam faster. However, Wegner explains, while anthracite coal is not subject to spontaneous combustion, bituminous coal is considerably more volatile. In fact, bituminous coal is known for releasing the largest amounts of firedampa dangerous and explosive mixture of gases chiefly methane.
In addition, there was another potential contributing factor in the bituminous coal — this was iron sulfidealso known as pyritethat was likely present.